The substrates most commonly met with in industrial/commercial/residential buildings are :

  • Concrete
  • Asbestos cement sheeting
  • Steel
  • Aluminium
  • Zinc (galvanished steel)
  • Previously coated surfaces in various states of corrosion, contamination and disrepair

Concrete is the most variable of all substrates as it can differ in :

  • Moisture content
  • Alkalinity
  • Porosity
  • Contamination with shutter release oils and curing membranes
  • Laitance (the loose white powder where water has floated up before the concrete has set)
  • Efflorescence (crystalline salts brought forward by moisture from the body of the concrete and left on the surfaces when the moisture evaporates)
  • Algae on aged concrete
  • Industrial contamination, such as grease and oil on workshop floors
  • Protrusions, cracks, blow holes voids and hollow portions